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v5 Opcodes

Ops have a 'cost' of 1 unless otherwise specified.

err

  • Bytecode: 0x00
  • Stack: ... → exits
  • Fail immediately.

sha256

  • Bytecode: 0x01
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., [32]byte
  • SHA256 hash of value A, yields [32]byte
  • Cost: 35

keccak256

  • Bytecode: 0x02
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., [32]byte
  • Keccak256 hash of value A, yields [32]byte
  • Cost: 130

sha512_256

  • Bytecode: 0x03
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., [32]byte
  • SHA512_256 hash of value A, yields [32]byte
  • Cost: 45

ed25519verify

  • Bytecode: 0x04
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: [64]byte, C: [32]byte → ..., bool
  • for (data A, signature B, pubkey C) verify the signature of ("ProgData" || program_hash || data) against the pubkey => {0 or 1}
  • Cost: 1900

The 32 byte public key is the last element on the stack, preceded by the 64 byte signature at the second-to-last element on the stack, preceded by the data which was signed at the third-to-last element on the stack.

ecdsa_verify

  • Syntax: ecdsa_verify V ∋ V: ECDSA
  • Bytecode: 0x05 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: [32]byte, B: []byte, C: []byte, D: []byte, E: []byte → ..., bool
  • for (data A, signature B, C and pubkey D, E) verify the signature of the data against the pubkey => {0 or 1}
  • Cost: Secp256k1=1700
  • Availability: v5

ECDSA

Curves

Index Name Notes
0 Secp256k1 secp256k1 curve, used in Bitcoin

The 32 byte Y-component of a public key is the last element on the stack, preceded by X-component of a pubkey, preceded by S and R components of a signature, preceded by the data that is fifth element on the stack. All values are big-endian encoded. The signed data must be 32 bytes long, and signatures in lower-S form are only accepted.

ecdsa_pk_decompress

  • Syntax: ecdsa_pk_decompress V ∋ V: ECDSA
  • Bytecode: 0x06 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., X: []byte, Y: []byte
  • decompress pubkey A into components X, Y
  • Cost: Secp256k1=650
  • Availability: v5

The 33 byte public key in a compressed form to be decompressed into X and Y (top) components. All values are big-endian encoded.

ecdsa_pk_recover

  • Syntax: ecdsa_pk_recover V ∋ V: ECDSA
  • Bytecode: 0x07 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: [32]byte, B: uint64, C: [32]byte, D: [32]byte → ..., X: []byte, Y: []byte
  • for (data A, recovery id B, signature C, D) recover a public key
  • Cost: 2000
  • Availability: v5

S (top) and R elements of a signature, recovery id and data (bottom) are expected on the stack and used to deriver a public key. All values are big-endian encoded. The signed data must be 32 bytes long.

+

  • Bytecode: 0x08
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A plus B. Fail on overflow.

Overflow is an error condition which halts execution and fails the transaction. Full precision is available from addw.

-

  • Bytecode: 0x09
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A minus B. Fail if B > A.

/

  • Bytecode: 0x0a
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A divided by B (truncated division). Fail if B == 0.

divmodw is available to divide the two-element values produced by mulw and addw.

*

  • Bytecode: 0x0b
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A times B. Fail on overflow.

Overflow is an error condition which halts execution and fails the transaction. Full precision is available from mulw.

<

  • Bytecode: 0x0c
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., bool
  • A less than B => {0 or 1}

>

  • Bytecode: 0x0d
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., bool
  • A greater than B => {0 or 1}

<=

  • Bytecode: 0x0e
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., bool
  • A less than or equal to B => {0 or 1}

>=

  • Bytecode: 0x0f
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., bool
  • A greater than or equal to B => {0 or 1}

&&

  • Bytecode: 0x10
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., bool
  • A is not zero and B is not zero => {0 or 1}

||

  • Bytecode: 0x11
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., bool
  • A is not zero or B is not zero => {0 or 1}

==

  • Bytecode: 0x12
  • Stack: ..., A, B → ..., bool
  • A is equal to B => {0 or 1}

!=

  • Bytecode: 0x13
  • Stack: ..., A, B → ..., bool
  • A is not equal to B => {0 or 1}

!

  • Bytecode: 0x14
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A == 0 yields 1; else 0

len

  • Bytecode: 0x15
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., uint64
  • yields length of byte value A

itob

  • Bytecode: 0x16
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., []byte
  • converts uint64 A to big-endian byte array, always of length 8

btoi

  • Bytecode: 0x17
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., uint64
  • converts big-endian byte array A to uint64. Fails if len(A) > 8. Padded by leading 0s if len(A) < 8.

btoi fails if the input is longer than 8 bytes.

%

  • Bytecode: 0x18
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A modulo B. Fail if B == 0.

|

  • Bytecode: 0x19
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A bitwise-or B

&

  • Bytecode: 0x1a
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A bitwise-and B

^

  • Bytecode: 0x1b
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A bitwise-xor B

~

  • Bytecode: 0x1c
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • bitwise invert value A

mulw

  • Bytecode: 0x1d
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., X: uint64, Y: uint64
  • A times B as a 128-bit result in two uint64s. X is the high 64 bits, Y is the low

addw

  • Bytecode: 0x1e
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., X: uint64, Y: uint64
  • A plus B as a 128-bit result. X is the carry-bit, Y is the low-order 64 bits.
  • Availability: v2

divmodw

  • Bytecode: 0x1f
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64, C: uint64, D: uint64 → ..., W: uint64, X: uint64, Y: uint64, Z: uint64
  • W,X = (A,B / C,D); Y,Z = (A,B modulo C,D)
  • Cost: 20
  • Availability: v4

The notation J,K indicates that two uint64 values J and K are interpreted as a uint128 value, with J as the high uint64 and K the low.

intcblock

  • Syntax: intcblock UINT ... ∋ UINT ...: a block of int constant values
  • Bytecode: 0x20 {varuint count, [varuint ...]}
  • Stack: ... → ...
  • prepare block of uint64 constants for use by intc

intcblock loads following program bytes into an array of integer constants in the evaluator. These integer constants can be referred to by intc and intc_* which will push the value onto the stack. Subsequent calls to intcblock reset and replace the integer constants available to the script.

intc

  • Syntax: intc I ∋ I: an index in the intcblock
  • Bytecode: 0x21 {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., uint64
  • Ith constant from intcblock

intc_0

  • Bytecode: 0x22
  • Stack: ... → ..., uint64
  • constant 0 from intcblock

intc_1

  • Bytecode: 0x23
  • Stack: ... → ..., uint64
  • constant 1 from intcblock

intc_2

  • Bytecode: 0x24
  • Stack: ... → ..., uint64
  • constant 2 from intcblock

intc_3

  • Bytecode: 0x25
  • Stack: ... → ..., uint64
  • constant 3 from intcblock

bytecblock

  • Syntax: bytecblock BYTES ... ∋ BYTES ...: a block of byte constant values
  • Bytecode: 0x26 {varuint count, [varuint length, bytes ...]}
  • Stack: ... → ...
  • prepare block of byte-array constants for use by bytec

bytecblock loads the following program bytes into an array of byte-array constants in the evaluator. These constants can be referred to by bytec and bytec_* which will push the value onto the stack. Subsequent calls to bytecblock reset and replace the bytes constants available to the script.

bytec

  • Syntax: bytec I ∋ I: an index in the bytecblock
  • Bytecode: 0x27 {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • Ith constant from bytecblock

bytec_0

  • Bytecode: 0x28
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • constant 0 from bytecblock

bytec_1

  • Bytecode: 0x29
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • constant 1 from bytecblock

bytec_2

  • Bytecode: 0x2a
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • constant 2 from bytecblock

bytec_3

  • Bytecode: 0x2b
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • constant 3 from bytecblock

arg

  • Syntax: arg N ∋ N: an arg index
  • Bytecode: 0x2c {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • Nth LogicSig argument
  • Mode: Signature

arg_0

  • Bytecode: 0x2d
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • LogicSig argument 0
  • Mode: Signature

arg_1

  • Bytecode: 0x2e
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • LogicSig argument 1
  • Mode: Signature

arg_2

  • Bytecode: 0x2f
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • LogicSig argument 2
  • Mode: Signature

arg_3

  • Bytecode: 0x30
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • LogicSig argument 3
  • Mode: Signature

txn

  • Syntax: txn F ∋ F: txn
  • Bytecode: 0x31 {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., any
  • field F of current transaction

txn

Fields (see transaction reference)

Index Name Type In Notes
0 Sender address 32 byte address
1 Fee uint64 microalgos
2 FirstValid uint64 round number
4 LastValid uint64 round number
5 Note []byte Any data up to 1024 bytes
6 Lease [32]byte 32 byte lease value
7 Receiver address 32 byte address
8 Amount uint64 microalgos
9 CloseRemainderTo address 32 byte address
10 VotePK [32]byte 32 byte address
11 SelectionPK [32]byte 32 byte address
12 VoteFirst uint64 The first round that the participation key is valid.
13 VoteLast uint64 The last round that the participation key is valid.
14 VoteKeyDilution uint64 Dilution for the 2-level participation key
15 Type []byte Transaction type as bytes
16 TypeEnum uint64 Transaction type as integer
17 XferAsset uint64 Asset ID
18 AssetAmount uint64 value in Asset's units
19 AssetSender address 32 byte address. Source of assets if Sender is the Asset's Clawback address.
20 AssetReceiver address 32 byte address
21 AssetCloseTo address 32 byte address
22 GroupIndex uint64 Position of this transaction within an atomic transaction group. A stand-alone transaction is implicitly element 0 in a group of 1
23 TxID [32]byte The computed ID for this transaction. 32 bytes.
24 ApplicationID uint64 v2 ApplicationID from ApplicationCall transaction
25 OnCompletion uint64 v2 ApplicationCall transaction on completion action
27 NumAppArgs uint64 v2 Number of ApplicationArgs
29 NumAccounts uint64 v2 Number of Accounts
30 ApprovalProgram []byte v2 Approval program
31 ClearStateProgram []byte v2 Clear state program
32 RekeyTo address v2 32 byte Sender's new AuthAddr
33 ConfigAsset uint64 v2 Asset ID in asset config transaction
34 ConfigAssetTotal uint64 v2 Total number of units of this asset created
35 ConfigAssetDecimals uint64 v2 Number of digits to display after the decimal place when displaying the asset
36 ConfigAssetDefaultFrozen bool v2 Whether the asset's slots are frozen by default or not, 0 or 1
37 ConfigAssetUnitName []byte v2 Unit name of the asset
38 ConfigAssetName []byte v2 The asset name
39 ConfigAssetURL []byte v2 URL
40 ConfigAssetMetadataHash [32]byte v2 32 byte commitment to unspecified asset metadata
41 ConfigAssetManager address v2 32 byte address
42 ConfigAssetReserve address v2 32 byte address
43 ConfigAssetFreeze address v2 32 byte address
44 ConfigAssetClawback address v2 32 byte address
45 FreezeAsset uint64 v2 Asset ID being frozen or un-frozen
46 FreezeAssetAccount address v2 32 byte address of the account whose asset slot is being frozen or un-frozen
47 FreezeAssetFrozen bool v2 The new frozen value, 0 or 1
49 NumAssets uint64 v3 Number of Assets
51 NumApplications uint64 v3 Number of Applications
52 GlobalNumUint uint64 v3 Number of global state integers in ApplicationCall
53 GlobalNumByteSlice uint64 v3 Number of global state byteslices in ApplicationCall
54 LocalNumUint uint64 v3 Number of local state integers in ApplicationCall
55 LocalNumByteSlice uint64 v3 Number of local state byteslices in ApplicationCall
56 ExtraProgramPages uint64 v4 Number of additional pages for each of the application's approval and clear state programs. An ExtraProgramPages of 1 means 2048 more total bytes, or 1024 for each program.
57 Nonparticipation bool v5 Marks an account nonparticipating for rewards
59 NumLogs uint64 v5 Number of Logs (only with itxn in v5). Application mode only
60 CreatedAssetID uint64 v5 Asset ID allocated by the creation of an ASA (only with itxn in v5). Application mode only
61 CreatedApplicationID uint64 v5 ApplicationID allocated by the creation of an application (only with itxn in v5). Application mode only

global

  • Syntax: global F ∋ F: global
  • Bytecode: 0x32 {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., any
  • global field F

global

Fields

Index Name Type In Notes
0 MinTxnFee uint64 microalgos
1 MinBalance uint64 microalgos
2 MaxTxnLife uint64 rounds
3 ZeroAddress address 32 byte address of all zero bytes
4 GroupSize uint64 Number of transactions in this atomic transaction group. At least 1
5 LogicSigVersion uint64 v2 Maximum supported version
6 Round uint64 v2 Current round number. Application mode only.
7 LatestTimestamp uint64 v2 Last confirmed block UNIX timestamp. Fails if negative. Application mode only.
8 CurrentApplicationID uint64 v2 ID of current application executing. Application mode only.
9 CreatorAddress address v3 Address of the creator of the current application. Application mode only.
10 CurrentApplicationAddress address v5 Address that the current application controls. Application mode only.
11 GroupID [32]byte v5 ID of the transaction group. 32 zero bytes if the transaction is not part of a group.

gtxn

  • Syntax: gtxn T F ∋ T: transaction group index, F: txn
  • Bytecode: 0x33 {uint8}, {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., any
  • field F of the Tth transaction in the current group

for notes on transaction fields available, see txn. If this transaction is i in the group, gtxn i field is equivalent to txn field.

load

  • Syntax: load I ∋ I: position in scratch space to load from
  • Bytecode: 0x34 {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., any
  • Ith scratch space value. All scratch spaces are 0 at program start.

store

  • Syntax: store I ∋ I: position in scratch space to store to
  • Bytecode: 0x35 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A → ...
  • store A to the Ith scratch space

txna

  • Syntax: txna F I ∋ F: txna, I: transaction field array index
  • Bytecode: 0x36 {uint8}, {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., any
  • Ith value of the array field F of the current transaction
    txna can be called using txn with 2 immediates.
  • Availability: v2

txna

Fields (see transaction reference)

Index Name Type In Notes
26 ApplicationArgs []byte v2 Arguments passed to the application in the ApplicationCall transaction
28 Accounts address v2 Accounts listed in the ApplicationCall transaction
48 Assets uint64 v3 Foreign Assets listed in the ApplicationCall transaction
50 Applications uint64 v3 Foreign Apps listed in the ApplicationCall transaction
58 Logs []byte v5 Log messages emitted by an application call (only with itxn in v5). Application mode only

gtxna

  • Syntax: gtxna T F I ∋ T: transaction group index, F: txna, I: transaction field array index
  • Bytecode: 0x37 {uint8}, {uint8}, {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., any
  • Ith value of the array field F from the Tth transaction in the current group
    gtxna can be called using gtxn with 3 immediates.
  • Availability: v2

gtxns

  • Syntax: gtxns F ∋ F: txn
  • Bytecode: 0x38 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., any
  • field F of the Ath transaction in the current group
  • Availability: v3

for notes on transaction fields available, see txn. If top of stack is i, gtxns field is equivalent to gtxn _i_ field. gtxns exists so that i can be calculated, often based on the index of the current transaction.

gtxnsa

  • Syntax: gtxnsa F I ∋ F: txna, I: transaction field array index
  • Bytecode: 0x39 {uint8}, {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., any
  • Ith value of the array field F from the Ath transaction in the current group
    gtxnsa can be called using gtxns with 2 immediates.
  • Availability: v3

gload

  • Syntax: gload T I ∋ T: transaction group index, I: position in scratch space to load from
  • Bytecode: 0x3a {uint8}, {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., any
  • Ith scratch space value of the Tth transaction in the current group
  • Availability: v4
  • Mode: Application

gload fails unless the requested transaction is an ApplicationCall and T < GroupIndex.

gloads

  • Syntax: gloads I ∋ I: position in scratch space to load from
  • Bytecode: 0x3b {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., any
  • Ith scratch space value of the Ath transaction in the current group
  • Availability: v4
  • Mode: Application

gloads fails unless the requested transaction is an ApplicationCall and A < GroupIndex.

gaid

  • Syntax: gaid T ∋ T: transaction group index
  • Bytecode: 0x3c {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., uint64
  • ID of the asset or application created in the Tth transaction of the current group
  • Availability: v4
  • Mode: Application

gaid fails unless the requested transaction created an asset or application and T < GroupIndex.

gaids

  • Bytecode: 0x3d
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • ID of the asset or application created in the Ath transaction of the current group
  • Availability: v4
  • Mode: Application

gaids fails unless the requested transaction created an asset or application and A < GroupIndex.

loads

  • Bytecode: 0x3e
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., any
  • Ath scratch space value. All scratch spaces are 0 at program start.
  • Availability: v5

stores

  • Bytecode: 0x3f
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B → ...
  • store B to the Ath scratch space
  • Availability: v5

bnz

  • Syntax: bnz TARGET ∋ TARGET: branch offset
  • Bytecode: 0x40 {int16 (big-endian)}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ...
  • branch to TARGET if value A is not zero

The bnz instruction opcode 0x40 is followed by two immediate data bytes which are a high byte first and low byte second which together form a 16 bit offset which the instruction may branch to. For a bnz instruction at pc, if the last element of the stack is not zero then branch to instruction at pc + 3 + N, else proceed to next instruction at pc + 3. Branch targets must be aligned instructions. (e.g. Branching to the second byte of a 2 byte op will be rejected.) Starting at v4, the offset is treated as a signed 16 bit integer allowing for backward branches and looping. In prior version (v1 to v3), branch offsets are limited to forward branches only, 0-0x7fff.

At v2 it became allowed to branch to the end of the program exactly after the last instruction: bnz to byte N (with 0-indexing) was illegal for a TEAL program with N bytes before v2, and is legal after it. This change eliminates the need for a last instruction of no-op as a branch target at the end. (Branching beyond the end--in other words, to a byte larger than N--is still illegal and will cause the program to fail.)

bz

  • Syntax: bz TARGET ∋ TARGET: branch offset
  • Bytecode: 0x41 {int16 (big-endian)}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ...
  • branch to TARGET if value A is zero
  • Availability: v2

See bnz for details on how branches work. bz inverts the behavior of bnz.

b

  • Syntax: b TARGET ∋ TARGET: branch offset
  • Bytecode: 0x42 {int16 (big-endian)}
  • Stack: ... → ...
  • branch unconditionally to TARGET
  • Availability: v2

See bnz for details on how branches work. b always jumps to the offset.

return

  • Bytecode: 0x43
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → exits
  • use A as success value; end
  • Availability: v2

assert

  • Bytecode: 0x44
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ...
  • immediately fail unless A is a non-zero number
  • Availability: v3

pop

  • Bytecode: 0x48
  • Stack: ..., A → ...
  • discard A

dup

  • Bytecode: 0x49
  • Stack: ..., A → ..., A, A
  • duplicate A

dup2

  • Bytecode: 0x4a
  • Stack: ..., A, B → ..., A, B, A, B
  • duplicate A and B
  • Availability: v2

dig

  • Syntax: dig N ∋ N: depth
  • Bytecode: 0x4b {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A, [N items] → ..., A, [N items], A
  • Nth value from the top of the stack. dig 0 is equivalent to dup
  • Availability: v3

swap

  • Bytecode: 0x4c
  • Stack: ..., A, B → ..., B, A
  • swaps A and B on stack
  • Availability: v3

select

  • Bytecode: 0x4d
  • Stack: ..., A, B, C: uint64 → ..., A or B
  • selects one of two values based on top-of-stack: B if C != 0, else A
  • Availability: v3

cover

  • Syntax: cover N ∋ N: depth
  • Bytecode: 0x4e {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., [N items], A → ..., A, [N items]
  • remove top of stack, and place it deeper in the stack such that N elements are above it. Fails if stack depth <= N.
  • Availability: v5

uncover

  • Syntax: uncover N ∋ N: depth
  • Bytecode: 0x4f {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A, [N items] → ..., [N items], A
  • remove the value at depth N in the stack and shift above items down so the Nth deep value is on top of the stack. Fails if stack depth <= N.
  • Availability: v5

concat

  • Bytecode: 0x50
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: []byte → ..., []byte
  • join A and B
  • Availability: v2

concat fails if the result would be greater than 4096 bytes.

substring

  • Syntax: substring S E ∋ S: start position, E: end position
  • Bytecode: 0x51 {uint8}, {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., []byte
  • A range of bytes from A starting at S up to but not including E. If E < S, or either is larger than the array length, the program fails
  • Availability: v2

substring3

  • Bytecode: 0x52
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: uint64, C: uint64 → ..., []byte
  • A range of bytes from A starting at B up to but not including C. If C < B, or either is larger than the array length, the program fails
  • Availability: v2

getbit

  • Bytecode: 0x53
  • Stack: ..., A, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • Bth bit of (byte-array or integer) A. If B is greater than or equal to the bit length of the value (8*byte length), the program fails
  • Availability: v3

see explanation of bit ordering in setbit

setbit

  • Bytecode: 0x54
  • Stack: ..., A, B: uint64, C: uint64 → ..., any
  • Copy of (byte-array or integer) A, with the Bth bit set to (0 or 1) C. If B is greater than or equal to the bit length of the value (8*byte length), the program fails
  • Availability: v3

When A is a uint64, index 0 is the least significant bit. Setting bit 3 to 1 on the integer 0 yields 8, or 2^3. When A is a byte array, index 0 is the leftmost bit of the leftmost byte. Setting bits 0 through 11 to 1 in a 4-byte-array of 0s yields the byte array 0xfff00000. Setting bit 3 to 1 on the 1-byte-array 0x00 yields the byte array 0x10.

getbyte

  • Bytecode: 0x55
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • Bth byte of A, as an integer. If B is greater than or equal to the array length, the program fails
  • Availability: v3

setbyte

  • Bytecode: 0x56
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: uint64, C: uint64 → ..., []byte
  • Copy of A with the Bth byte set to small integer (between 0..255) C. If B is greater than or equal to the array length, the program fails
  • Availability: v3

extract

  • Syntax: extract S L ∋ S: start position, L: length
  • Bytecode: 0x57 {uint8}, {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., []byte
  • A range of bytes from A starting at S up to but not including S+L. If L is 0, then extract to the end of the string. If S or S+L is larger than the array length, the program fails
  • Availability: v5

extract3

  • Bytecode: 0x58
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: uint64, C: uint64 → ..., []byte
  • A range of bytes from A starting at B up to but not including B+C. If B+C is larger than the array length, the program fails
    extract3 can be called using extract with no immediates.
  • Availability: v5

extract_uint16

  • Bytecode: 0x59
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A uint16 formed from a range of big-endian bytes from A starting at B up to but not including B+2. If B+2 is larger than the array length, the program fails
  • Availability: v5

extract_uint32

  • Bytecode: 0x5a
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A uint32 formed from a range of big-endian bytes from A starting at B up to but not including B+4. If B+4 is larger than the array length, the program fails
  • Availability: v5

extract_uint64

  • Bytecode: 0x5b
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A uint64 formed from a range of big-endian bytes from A starting at B up to but not including B+8. If B+8 is larger than the array length, the program fails
  • Availability: v5

balance

  • Bytecode: 0x60
  • Stack: ..., A → ..., uint64
  • balance for account A, in microalgos. The balance is observed after the effects of previous transactions in the group, and after the fee for the current transaction is deducted. Changes caused by inner transactions are observable immediately following itxn_submit
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

params: Txn.Accounts offset (or, since v4, an available account address), available application id (or, since v4, a Txn.ForeignApps offset). Return: value.

app_opted_in

  • Bytecode: 0x61
  • Stack: ..., A, B: uint64 → ..., bool
  • 1 if account A is opted in to application B, else 0
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

params: Txn.Accounts offset (or, since v4, an available account address), available application id (or, since v4, a Txn.ForeignApps offset). Return: 1 if opted in and 0 otherwise.

app_local_get

  • Bytecode: 0x62
  • Stack: ..., A, B: []byte → ..., any
  • local state of the key B in the current application in account A
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

params: Txn.Accounts offset (or, since v4, an available account address), state key. Return: value. The value is zero (of type uint64) if the key does not exist.

app_local_get_ex

  • Bytecode: 0x63
  • Stack: ..., A, B: uint64, C: []byte → ..., X: any, Y: bool
  • X is the local state of application B, key C in account A. Y is 1 if key existed, else 0
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

params: Txn.Accounts offset (or, since v4, an available account address), available application id (or, since v4, a Txn.ForeignApps offset), state key. Return: did_exist flag (top of the stack, 1 if the application and key existed and 0 otherwise), value. The value is zero (of type uint64) if the key does not exist.

app_global_get

  • Bytecode: 0x64
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., any
  • global state of the key A in the current application
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

params: state key. Return: value. The value is zero (of type uint64) if the key does not exist.

app_global_get_ex

  • Bytecode: 0x65
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: []byte → ..., X: any, Y: bool
  • X is the global state of application A, key B. Y is 1 if key existed, else 0
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

params: Txn.ForeignApps offset (or, since v4, an available application id), state key. Return: did_exist flag (top of the stack, 1 if the application and key existed and 0 otherwise), value. The value is zero (of type uint64) if the key does not exist.

app_local_put

  • Bytecode: 0x66
  • Stack: ..., A, B: []byte, C → ...
  • write C to key B in account A's local state of the current application
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

params: Txn.Accounts offset (or, since v4, an available account address), state key, value.

app_global_put

  • Bytecode: 0x67
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B → ...
  • write B to key A in the global state of the current application
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

app_local_del

  • Bytecode: 0x68
  • Stack: ..., A, B: []byte → ...
  • delete key B from account A's local state of the current application
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

params: Txn.Accounts offset (or, since v4, an available account address), state key.

Deleting a key which is already absent has no effect on the application local state. (In particular, it does not cause the program to fail.)

app_global_del

  • Bytecode: 0x69
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ...
  • delete key A from the global state of the current application
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

params: state key.

Deleting a key which is already absent has no effect on the application global state. (In particular, it does not cause the program to fail.)

asset_holding_get

  • Syntax: asset_holding_get F ∋ F: asset_holding
  • Bytecode: 0x70 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A, B: uint64 → ..., X: any, Y: bool
  • X is field F from account A's holding of asset B. Y is 1 if A is opted into B, else 0
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

asset_holding

Fields

Index Name Type Notes
0 AssetBalance uint64 Amount of the asset unit held by this account
1 AssetFrozen bool Is the asset frozen or not

params: Txn.Accounts offset (or, since v4, an available address), asset id (or, since v4, a Txn.ForeignAssets offset). Return: did_exist flag (1 if the asset existed and 0 otherwise), value.

asset_params_get

  • Syntax: asset_params_get F ∋ F: asset_params
  • Bytecode: 0x71 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., X: any, Y: bool
  • X is field F from asset A. Y is 1 if A exists, else 0
  • Availability: v2
  • Mode: Application

asset_params

Fields

Index Name Type In Notes
0 AssetTotal uint64 Total number of units of this asset
1 AssetDecimals uint64 See AssetParams.Decimals
2 AssetDefaultFrozen bool Frozen by default or not
3 AssetUnitName []byte Asset unit name
4 AssetName []byte Asset name
5 AssetURL []byte URL with additional info about the asset
6 AssetMetadataHash [32]byte Arbitrary commitment
7 AssetManager address Manager address
8 AssetReserve address Reserve address
9 AssetFreeze address Freeze address
10 AssetClawback address Clawback address
11 AssetCreator address v5 Creator address

params: Txn.ForeignAssets offset (or, since v4, an available asset id. Return: did_exist flag (1 if the asset existed and 0 otherwise), value.

app_params_get

  • Syntax: app_params_get F ∋ F: app_params
  • Bytecode: 0x72 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., X: any, Y: bool
  • X is field F from app A. Y is 1 if A exists, else 0
  • Availability: v5
  • Mode: Application

app_params

Fields

Index Name Type Notes
0 AppApprovalProgram []byte Bytecode of Approval Program
1 AppClearStateProgram []byte Bytecode of Clear State Program
2 AppGlobalNumUint uint64 Number of uint64 values allowed in Global State
3 AppGlobalNumByteSlice uint64 Number of byte array values allowed in Global State
4 AppLocalNumUint uint64 Number of uint64 values allowed in Local State
5 AppLocalNumByteSlice uint64 Number of byte array values allowed in Local State
6 AppExtraProgramPages uint64 Number of Extra Program Pages of code space
7 AppCreator address Creator address
8 AppAddress address Address for which this application has authority

params: Txn.ForeignApps offset or an available app id. Return: did_exist flag (1 if the application existed and 0 otherwise), value.

min_balance

  • Bytecode: 0x78
  • Stack: ..., A → ..., uint64
  • minimum required balance for account A, in microalgos. Required balance is affected by ASA, App, and Box usage. When creating or opting into an app, the minimum balance grows before the app code runs, therefore the increase is visible there. When deleting or closing out, the minimum balance decreases after the app executes. Changes caused by inner transactions or box usage are observable immediately following the opcode effecting the change.
  • Availability: v3
  • Mode: Application

params: Txn.Accounts offset (or, since v4, an available account address), available application id (or, since v4, a Txn.ForeignApps offset). Return: value.

pushbytes

  • Syntax: pushbytes BYTES ∋ BYTES: a byte constant
  • Bytecode: 0x80 {varuint length, bytes}
  • Stack: ... → ..., []byte
  • immediate BYTES
  • Availability: v3

pushbytes args are not added to the bytecblock during assembly processes

pushint

  • Syntax: pushint UINT ∋ UINT: an int constant
  • Bytecode: 0x81 {varuint}
  • Stack: ... → ..., uint64
  • immediate UINT
  • Availability: v3

pushint args are not added to the intcblock during assembly processes

callsub

  • Syntax: callsub TARGET ∋ TARGET: branch offset
  • Bytecode: 0x88 {int16 (big-endian)}
  • Stack: ... → ...
  • branch unconditionally to TARGET, saving the next instruction on the call stack
  • Availability: v4

The call stack is separate from the data stack. Only callsub, retsub, and proto manipulate it.

retsub

  • Bytecode: 0x89
  • Stack: ... → ...
  • pop the top instruction from the call stack and branch to it
  • Availability: v4

If the current frame was prepared by proto A R, retsub will remove the 'A' arguments from the stack, move the R return values down, and pop any stack locations above the relocated return values.

shl

  • Bytecode: 0x90
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A times 2^B, modulo 2^64
  • Availability: v4

shr

  • Bytecode: 0x91
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A divided by 2^B
  • Availability: v4

sqrt

  • Bytecode: 0x92
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • The largest integer I such that I^2 <= A
  • Cost: 4
  • Availability: v4

bitlen

  • Bytecode: 0x93
  • Stack: ..., A → ..., uint64
  • The highest set bit in A. If A is a byte-array, it is interpreted as a big-endian unsigned integer. bitlen of 0 is 0, bitlen of 8 is 4
  • Availability: v4

bitlen interprets arrays as big-endian integers, unlike setbit/getbit

exp

  • Bytecode: 0x94
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., uint64
  • A raised to the Bth power. Fail if A == B == 0 and on overflow
  • Availability: v4

expw

  • Bytecode: 0x95
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., X: uint64, Y: uint64
  • A raised to the Bth power as a 128-bit result in two uint64s. X is the high 64 bits, Y is the low. Fail if A == B == 0 or if the results exceeds 2^128-1
  • Cost: 10
  • Availability: v4

b+

  • Bytecode: 0xa0
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., []byte
  • A plus B. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers
  • Cost: 10
  • Availability: v4

b-

  • Bytecode: 0xa1
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., bigint
  • A minus B. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers. Fail on underflow.
  • Cost: 10
  • Availability: v4

b/

  • Bytecode: 0xa2
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., bigint
  • A divided by B (truncated division). A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers. Fail if B is zero.
  • Cost: 20
  • Availability: v4

b*

  • Bytecode: 0xa3
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., []byte
  • A times B. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers.
  • Cost: 20
  • Availability: v4

b<

  • Bytecode: 0xa4
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., bool
  • 1 if A is less than B, else 0. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers
  • Availability: v4

b>

  • Bytecode: 0xa5
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., bool
  • 1 if A is greater than B, else 0. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers
  • Availability: v4

b<=

  • Bytecode: 0xa6
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., bool
  • 1 if A is less than or equal to B, else 0. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers
  • Availability: v4

b>=

  • Bytecode: 0xa7
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., bool
  • 1 if A is greater than or equal to B, else 0. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers
  • Availability: v4

b==

  • Bytecode: 0xa8
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., bool
  • 1 if A is equal to B, else 0. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers
  • Availability: v4

b!=

  • Bytecode: 0xa9
  • Stack: ..., A: bigint, B: bigint → ..., bool
  • 0 if A is equal to B, else 1. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers
  • Availability: v4

b%

  • Bytecode: 0xaa
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: []byte → ..., []byte
  • A modulo B. A and B are interpreted as big-endian unsigned integers. Fail if B is zero.
  • Cost: 20
  • Availability: v4

b|

  • Bytecode: 0xab
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: []byte → ..., []byte
  • A bitwise-or B. A and B are zero-left extended to the greater of their lengths
  • Cost: 6
  • Availability: v4

b&

  • Bytecode: 0xac
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: []byte → ..., []byte
  • A bitwise-and B. A and B are zero-left extended to the greater of their lengths
  • Cost: 6
  • Availability: v4

b^

  • Bytecode: 0xad
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte, B: []byte → ..., []byte
  • A bitwise-xor B. A and B are zero-left extended to the greater of their lengths
  • Cost: 6
  • Availability: v4

b~

  • Bytecode: 0xae
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ..., []byte
  • A with all bits inverted
  • Cost: 4
  • Availability: v4

bzero

  • Bytecode: 0xaf
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., []byte
  • zero filled byte-array of length A
  • Availability: v4

log

  • Bytecode: 0xb0
  • Stack: ..., A: []byte → ...
  • write A to log state of the current application
  • Availability: v5
  • Mode: Application

log fails if called more than MaxLogCalls times in a program, or if the sum of logged bytes exceeds 1024 bytes.

itxn_begin

  • Bytecode: 0xb1
  • Stack: ... → ...
  • begin preparation of a new inner transaction in a new transaction group
  • Availability: v5
  • Mode: Application

itxn_begin initializes Sender to the application address; Fee to the minimum allowable, taking into account MinTxnFee and credit from overpaying in earlier transactions; FirstValid/LastValid to the values in the invoking transaction, and all other fields to zero or empty values.

itxn_field

  • Syntax: itxn_field F ∋ F: txn
  • Bytecode: 0xb2 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A → ...
  • set field F of the current inner transaction to A
  • Availability: v5
  • Mode: Application

itxn_field fails if A is of the wrong type for F, including a byte array of the wrong size for use as an address when F is an address field. itxn_field also fails if A is an account, asset, or app that is not available, or an attempt is made extend an array field beyond the limit imposed by consensus parameters. (Addresses set into asset params of acfg transactions need not be available.)

itxn_submit

  • Bytecode: 0xb3
  • Stack: ... → ...
  • execute the current inner transaction group. Fail if executing this group would exceed the inner transaction limit, or if any transaction in the group fails.
  • Availability: v5
  • Mode: Application

itxn_submit resets the current transaction so that it can not be resubmitted. A new itxn_begin is required to prepare another inner transaction.

itxn

  • Syntax: itxn F ∋ F: txn
  • Bytecode: 0xb4 {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., any
  • field F of the last inner transaction
  • Availability: v5
  • Mode: Application

itxna

  • Syntax: itxna F I ∋ F: txna, I: a transaction field array index
  • Bytecode: 0xb5 {uint8}, {uint8}
  • Stack: ... → ..., any
  • Ith value of the array field F of the last inner transaction
  • Availability: v5
  • Mode: Application

txnas

  • Syntax: txnas F ∋ F: txna
  • Bytecode: 0xc0 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., any
  • Ath value of the array field F of the current transaction
  • Availability: v5

gtxnas

  • Syntax: gtxnas T F ∋ T: transaction group index, F: txna
  • Bytecode: 0xc1 {uint8}, {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., any
  • Ath value of the array field F from the Tth transaction in the current group
  • Availability: v5

gtxnsas

  • Syntax: gtxnsas F ∋ F: txna
  • Bytecode: 0xc2 {uint8}
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64, B: uint64 → ..., any
  • Bth value of the array field F from the Ath transaction in the current group
  • Availability: v5

args

  • Bytecode: 0xc3
  • Stack: ..., A: uint64 → ..., []byte
  • Ath LogicSig argument
  • Availability: v5
  • Mode: Signature